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  • Writer's pictureumut cankurt

An Overview of German Public Procurement Law and Government Expenditures | Government Bids Notice

Introduction: Public procurement plays a crucial role in the functioning of governments and the economy. In Germany, the public procurement system is governed by the German Public Procurement Law (GPPRL). This blog post aims to provide a detailed overview of the GPPRL, public procurement announcements, procedures, and the allocation of public expenditures by sector in recent years. Please note that the information provided is based on the knowledge available up until September 2021.




  1. German Public Procurement Law (GPPRL): The German Public Procurement Law is a comprehensive legal framework that regulates the procurement of goods, services, and construction works by public authorities at the federal, state, and municipal levels. The primary objectives of the GPPRL are to ensure competition, transparency, equal treatment, and value for money in public procurement processes. It is based on European Union (EU) directives and applies to both domestic and cross-border procurement procedures.

  2. Public Procurement Announcements: Public procurement announcements serve as formal notices by public authorities to invite suppliers to participate in procurement procedures. These announcements provide essential information regarding the procurement process, requirements, and deadlines. The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) operates the electronic tendering platform called "Deutsche eVergabe," where public procurement notices are published. This platform facilitates efficient communication between public authorities and suppliers.

  3. Public Procurement Procedures: The GPPRL outlines various procurement procedures that public authorities can use, depending on the nature and value of the contract. The most common procedures include: a. Open Procedure: All interested suppliers can submit tenders, and the contract is awarded to the most economically advantageous offer. b. Restricted Procedure: Interested suppliers must submit an application to participate, and a selected number of qualified suppliers are invited to submit tenders. c. Negotiated Procedure: Public authorities can negotiate the terms of the contract directly with potential suppliers. d. Competitive Dialogue: This procedure involves a dialogue between public authorities and potential suppliers to develop a suitable solution before submitting tenders. e. Innovation Partnership: Designed for highly innovative projects, this procedure allows public authorities to partner with suppliers to develop innovative solutions.

  4. Allocation of Public Expenditures by Sector: Analyzing the allocation of public expenditures by sector provides valuable insights into the government's priorities and spending patterns. While specific data for recent years is not available at the time of writing, the Federal Ministry of Finance regularly publishes reports on federal budget expenditures.

Based on previous reports, some notable sectors with significant public expenditures include:

a. Infrastructure Development: Investments in transportation, energy, and communication infrastructure projects.

b. Healthcare: Funding for hospitals, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, and healthcare services.

c. Defense and Security: Procurement of military equipment, research and development, and security-related services.

d. Education: Expenditures on schools, universities, research grants, and educational initiatives.

e. Environmental Protection: Projects related to renewable energy, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development.

f. Social Welfare: Expenditures on social security, pensions, unemployment benefits, and welfare programs.


Conclusion: The German Public Procurement Law serves as the legal foundation for public procurement processes, ensuring fair competition and transparency. The government publishes public procurement announcements through the Deutsche eVergabe platform, facilitating efficient communication between authorities and suppliers. Although detailed data on recent public expenditures by sector is not available, previous reports highlight significant investments in infrastructure, healthcare, defense, education, environmental protection, and social welfare.


Please note that for the most up-to-date and specific information on German public procurement law, procurement announcements, and expenditure allocation, it is advisable to refer to official sources such as the German


Bidding and Evaluation of Bids in German Public Procurement:

  1. General Conditions for Companies: Companies interested in bidding for public procurement contracts in Germany must meet certain general conditions. These conditions may vary slightly depending on the specific procurement procedure and the contracting authority. Some common requirements include: a. Legal Capacity: Bidders must have legal status and capacity to enter into contracts. b. Professional Qualifications: Depending on the nature of the contract, bidders may need to demonstrate specific qualifications, certifications, or professional experience relevant to the procurement. c. Financial Stability: Bidders are usually required to provide evidence of their financial stability and solvency to ensure they can fulfill the contractual obligations. d. Compliance with Tax and Social Security Obligations: Bidders must demonstrate compliance with tax regulations and social security obligations. e. Absence of Conflict of Interest: Bidders must declare any potential conflicts of interest that could affect their ability to perform the contract fairly. f. Integrity and Ethical Standards: Bidders are expected to maintain high ethical standards and demonstrate integrity in their business practices.

  2. Differences Between States: While the German Public Procurement Law provides a uniform framework for public procurement, there may be some variations in specific requirements and procedures at the state level. This is because the federal government delegates certain procurement responsibilities to the individual states. These differences can include thresholds for different procurement procedures, additional documentation requirements, and local preferences in supplier selection.

  3. Differences in Practice: Despite the general framework provided by the GPPRL, there can be variations in procurement practices across different authorities and sectors. These differences can arise due to specific organizational needs, regional preferences, or varying interpretations of the law. It is essential for companies bidding on public contracts to carefully review the specific procurement documentation and requirements provided by each contracting authority to ensure compliance.

  4. Institutions Conducting Most Public Procurements: Several institutions and organizations at the federal, state, and local levels conduct public procurements in Germany. The following are some of the key institutions involved: a. Federal Ministries: Various federal ministries, such as the Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Transport, and Ministry of Health, are responsible for significant public procurement in their respective sectors. b. Federal Agencies: Federal agencies and bodies, such as the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR) and the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF), carry out substantial procurement activities. c. State Governments: Each state government in Germany has its procurement authorities responsible for public procurement within their jurisdiction. Examples include the State Office for Central Procurement in Bavaria (Zentrale Beschaffungsstelle Bayern) and the State Office for Construction and Property in North Rhine-Westphalia (BLB NRW). d. Municipalities: Local municipalities and their administrative bodies, such as city councils and municipal utilities, also engage in public procurement for various services, infrastructure projects, and supplies.

It's important to note that the above list is not exhaustive, as public procurement can involve a wide range of institutions depending on the specific projects and sectors involved.

Conclusion: Bidders in German public procurement processes must meet general conditions, including legal capacity, professional qualifications, financial stability, compliance with tax and social security obligations, absence of conflicts of interest, and adherence to ethical standards. While the German Public Procurement Law provides a uniform framework, there can be differences in requirements and procedures between states and in practice across different authorities. Key institutions involved in public procurement include federal ministries, federal agencies, state governments, and local municipalities. To ensure compliance and successful bidding, companies should carefully review the specific procurement documentation provided by each contracting authority.



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